Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Soil Parameters with Various Age Classes of Forests of Mukundpur, Satna, Forest Division, Madhya Pradesh, India

Prachi Singh

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2018/v1i1590

Aims: This forest area was susceptible to illicit felling, encroachment and illicit mining. From this problem the forests are changing from stocked - under stocked - blank forests. The majority of the area are blank and under stocked category. To re-vegetate the blank and under stocked area into stocked forests, the soil parameters in the study area were needed to be studied in detail. In the present study the associations of soil parameters like pH, electrical conductivity, availability of major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium) and micro nutrients like (copper, manganese, iron and zinc) with various age classes of forests were analyzed.

Study Design: Stratified systematic random sampling.

Place and Duration of Study: Study area was the forest area of 111.55 km2 of Mukundpur range of Satna Forest division, Madhya Pradesh, India. Field work was carried out during October 2015 to January 2016.

Methodology: The vegetation sampling had been done to assess the forest resource survey. Stratified systematic random sampling method was used for sampling the vegetation. The minimum numbers of sample points were calculated using statistical formula. The 151 sample points at 30”x 30” were selected on safer side with the help of GPS. Half kg of soil sample was collected from central quadrat from the depth of 30 cm from the sample point and air-dried under shade. These samples were sent to soil testing lab Rewa to assess the soil parameters pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, available nitrogen, available P2O5, available K2O and micronutrient analysis for availability of zinc, iron, manganese and copper. The Microsoft access program was developed to evaluate the above soil parameters in various age classes of forests. Age classes of forest are defined as, Mature: where average girth of forest trees is more than 120 cm, Middle age: where the average girth of trees of a particular forest stands between 61-120 cm, Young age: where average girth of trees of particular stand is below 60 cm.

Results: Results of individual soil parameters on various age classes of forests were summarized below:

The average value of pH in different age classes did not change significantly with average value of pH of the study area. The electrical conductivity within encroachment and blank category significantly changed but in medium and young age classes it did not differ significantly with average electrical conductivity of the study area. In encroachment and blank organic carbon content and available nitrogen were significantly higher but in medium and young age classes these parameters did not change significantly with the average value of organic carbon content and available nitrogen of the study area. The average value of available phosphorous in blank and young age classes did not change significantly but in encroachment and medium young age class it was significantly higher than the average value of available phosphorous of the whole study area. The average value of available K2O in encroachment, blank and young age class did not change significantly but it changed significantly in medium age class with average K2O value of study area. Except the encroachment category, the average zinc and iron value in blank, medium and young age classes did not change significantly with average value of the study area. The average value of Mn in encroachment and blank varied significantly but in medium and young category it did not change significantly with the average value of the study area. The average values of Cu with in Blank and young age classes did not change significantly but it had changed significantly in encroachment in medium age class with average value of the study area.

The results of combined effects of pH, EC, Organic Carbon and combined impact of nitrogen, P2O5 and K2O (macro nutrients) did not have significant association within various age classes of study area. The results of combined effects of Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu did not have significant association within various age classes of study area.

Conclusion: The effects of pH, electrical conductivity and organic carbon were not significant in age classes of study area either individually or jointly. The available nitrogen did not play significant role in age class formation of forest but P2O5 and K2O did make significant impact on medium age classes individually, but the combined effects of nitrogen, P2O5 and K2O (macro nutrients) did not have significant association within various age classes of study area. Individually the Zn, Fe and Mn did not play significant impact on age class formation of the forest, though Cu is significant in medium age classes. The overall impacts of Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu did not have significant association within various age classes of study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variation in Soil Chemical and Microbiological Properties as a Result of Yearly Amendment with Organic Fertilizer

O. A. Babalola, M. O. Adigun, I. O. Abiola

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2018/v1i1609

Millions of organic fertilizers are produced annually all over the world. Substantial quantities of these were crop residues and the remaining being animal waste based. Meanwhile maintaining and improving soil fertility in the tropic is essential for increasing food production for rapidly expanding the population. This project work, therefore, investigated the variation in soil chemical and microbiological properties as a result of yearly amendment with compost. The experimental site was the Organic Agricultural Farm located within the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. Soil samples were collected between 0 – 15 cm depth using soil auger and the samples were analyzed for the following soil parameters; total viable counts, total fungal counts, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, percentage organic carbon, microarthropod counts and earthworm counts. The experiment was a split-plot design using 2 varieties of tomato x 3 levels of compost and two durations of application. The variations include one improved variety (UCB 8) and a local variety (Beske), rate of compost – (0, 10, and 20) kg/ha and years of application (one and two years). Results generally showed that: duration has a significant effect on viable counts, microarthropod counts, microbial biomass P, microbial biomass C and percentage organic carbon but has no significant effect on fungal counts, microbial biomass nitrogen, and earthworm counts. The results indicate that application of compost manure is the preferred option to enhance SOM accumulation, improve soil fertility and quality, and increase tomato yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Application of No-purified Rhamnolipids in the Soil-washing of TPHs Contaminated Soils

Luis G. Torres, Roberto González, Jorge Gracida

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2018/v1i1618

Aims: This work aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of producing (mono- and di-) rhamnolipids employing a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ATCC 9027 employing olive oil as a substrate and some mineral salts. This rhamnolipid is a biosurfactants with multiple applications The CMC of this product under different conditions (filtered, unfiltered, in the presence and absence of Fe and Mg, at different pH values) was assessed. At the end, the UP was assessed in the washing of a TPH contaminated soil.

Place and Duration of Study: Bioprocess department. Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Biotecnologia-IPN facilities, during 2016.

Methodology: Rhamnolipids were produced with P. aeruginosa in olive oil, then by drying the culture broth was generated an unpurified product (UP) that contained 0.19% rhamnolipids. Critical micelle concentration CMC of UP products were evaluated in the presence of Ca2+ or Fe3+ from 0.5 to 2 mM, and pH values from 4 to 10. Finally, this surfactant was assessed in the washing of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, and compared with other synthetic surfactants.

Results: It was found that CMCs were similar to those reported in the literature for pure rhamnolipids. The UP products have shown dynamic behavior in the soil washing at concentrations below 176 mg/L because removed 80% of 6,500 mg TPH/Kg from a gravel-sandy soil; the rhamnolipids could be removed TPH through mobilization mechanism.

Conclusion: It was possible to produce rhamnolipid using olive oil as carbon source and strain of P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 to levels of 100 mg/L. It was feasible to produce a powder containing 1.19% of rhamnolipids. The UP had better properties as a surfactant than the purified product. The pH affects the CMC of the rhamnolipids in a way that promotes their behavior as ionic surfactant or nonionic surfactant. The ionic strength with Ca 2+ and Fe3+ has an effect on the CMC of rhamnolipids so that the decreases in the range of 35 to 41 mg/L in the presence of 0.5 to 2 mM of metals. The UP rhamnolipids were employed for washing soil contaminated with 6,500 mg/kg increased TPH removal at low concentrations and to be as effective as chemical surfactants.  TPH removal observed was about 80% for rhamnolipid with a CMC x 0.074 concentration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Organic Nutrient Management on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in South Gujarat Condition

Khuwaja Safiullah, Mahammad Akbar Ansari, Sadiq Hotak

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2018/v1i1620

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of organic nutrient on soil properties. During rabi season of 2016-17 at Organic Farm (F block), Aspee College of Horticulture and Forestry Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari Gujarat. The experiment was laid out in a Factorial Randomizes Block Design, comprising fifteen treatment combinations. The results indicated that significantly higher organic carbon content (1.22 %), available Nitrogen (229.52 kgN/ha), phosphorus, P2O5 (106.51 kgP/ha), potassium, K2O (599.60 kgK/ha) and Zinc (0.61 mgZn/kg) were found with the treatment O1 (100 % Nadep compost) and at par with O2 whereas, treatment O2 (75 % Nadep compost) registered significantly higher DTPA-Fe (15.35 mgFe/kg) and Manganese (17.27 mgMn/kg). No significant effect of different levels of Nadep compost was observed on pH, electric conductivity (EC), copper, DTPA-Cu and soil physical properties. Application of liquid organic manure failed to generate any significant effect on soil physic-chemical properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Spatial Variability Pattern of Wheat Yield and Soil Properties

Alidad Karami, Sadegh Afzalinia

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2018/v1i1626

Aims: Determining effects of spatial variation of some soil properties on wheat quantity and quality variation in order that proper soil and inputs management can be applied for sustainable wheat production.

Study Design: Analyzing data of a field with center pivot irrigation system and uniform management using the geostatistical method.

Place and Duration of Study: Soil and Water Research Department, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Darab, Iran, from September 2013 to February 2014.

Methodology: Wheat yield data harvested by class lexion 510 combine from 25 m2 plots (11340 locations) with the corresponding geographical location were used. Besides, soil properties and wheat yield were measured at 36 randomly selected points on the field. Interpolation of parameters was predicted with the best semi-variogram model using kriging, inverse distance weighted (IDW), and cokriging methods.

Results: Results showed that wheat yield varied from 2 to 10.08 tons per hectare. Cokriging with cofactor of kernel weight interpolator had more accuracy compared to the combine default interpolator (kriging). A logical, linear correlation was found between different parameters. The best variogram model for pH, OC, and ρb was exponential, for EC, TNV, SP, soil silt and clay percentage was spherical, and for soil, percentage sand was Gaussian model. Data of soil sand, silt, and clay percentage, EC, TNV, and SP had strong spatial structure, and soil pH, OC, and ρb had moderate spatial structure. The best interpolation method for soil pH, EC, sand and silt percentage was kriging method; while, for TNV, SP, OC, ρb, and clay percentage was IDW.

Conclusion: There was a close relationship between wheat yield variation and changes in the soil properties. Soil properties and wheat yield distribution maps provided valuable information which could be used for wheat yield improvement in precision agriculture.