Open Access Original Research Article

An Assessment of the Physico-Chemical Parameters of Mangrove Soils that Support Nypa fruticans and Other Mangrove Species Establishment in the Cameroon Estuary

Dongang Ceraphine Mangwa, Nkwatoh Anthanasius Fuashi, Asongwe Godswill Azinwie, Kamah Pascal Bumtu

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2021/v5i230102

Invasion of Nypa palm into mangroves is a problem in the Cameroon Estuary. Soil variability is one of the dominant features that support Nypa palm establishment. The objective was to characterize the soil under the different mangrove stands; Purely Nypa palm stands (A), mixed stands i.e Nypa palm and other mangrove species (B) and other mangrove species i.e Nypa palm free (C), determine the principal soil characteristic critical for Nypa spread.  9 plots of 20 x 20 m were laid in each of the sites.  27 soil samples were collected in the North, West, South East and Center at a depth of 30 cm in these three sites using a soil auger. The results in the three sites indicated that; soils were acidic (3.87- 4.39), pH values did not significantly differ (alpha >0.05), organic matter was low in A (12.32%) and B (16.35%).Soil Organic Carbon ranged from (4.52 to 7.06%). High percentage of organic carbon content was recorded in C (7.06%). Low percentage of organic carbon was found in A (4.52%). Total nitrogen varied from 1.04 g/kg, 1.70g/kg, 1.80 g/kg in sites C, A and B. In all the mangrove stands, the values of Exchangeable Ca content were below 4.0 cmolkg-1. Soil texture in the three sites were; sandy, clay and silt. Power test showed no significant different in soil types between the three sites (p>0.05). According to the component matrix the factor is positively loaded by soil EC, moisture content, organic matter, organic carbon, N, C/N, CEC, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Clay, Silt, and negatively loaded by the percent sand. This study therefore, suggests that since soil plays key role in Nypa palm establishment, there should be constant monitoring of soil quality to forestall drastic changes that will jeopardize the survival of the mangroves. Nypa palm seedlings should also be physically removed from mangrove forest to prevent colonization. In addition, more mangrove seeds should be planted in deforested mangrove areas to close the window of opportunity for the palms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pertinent Nutrient Status in Soil and Water of Kargah and Napuras Streams in Gilgit Valley

Badar-uz -Zaman, Huda Khan, Maryam Tariq

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 19-24
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2021/v5i230103

Aims: To observe the status of salinity build up besides inorganic nutrient status at different sites in Kargah and Napuras streams of Gilgit valley.

Study Design: one-way ANOVA means using LSD test.

Place and Duration of Study: Kargah and Napuras streams and nearby village in Gilgit valley and the duration of the study was 3 months. 

Methodology: Soil and water sampling to analyze pertinent salinity parameters besides inorganic nutrient status.

Results: Soil and water properties for important salinity parameters were normal at mid point after entering the village areas of Kargah and  Napuras streams. Human activities especially to raise crops by applying fertilizers needs to monitor with a specific time scale in order to avoid salinity build up. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Lead, Cadmium and Nickel Contamination in Lactuca Sativa Cultivated in Savadkooh Region, Iran

Gharibi, Azadeh, Khakipour, Nazanin

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 25-33
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2021/v5i230104

Aims: To investigate the level of heavy metal contamination in the lettuce cultivated in

Place: Savadkooh County in Mazandaran, Iran.

Methodology: five samples were taken from the lettuce produced in this area and also from the soils in which they were cultivated, and the concentrations of Nickel, Lead, and Cadmium were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the measured data. Data analysis was performed by SPSS ver.16 at the 0.05 significance level.

Results: The highest lead concentration, 0.07ppm, was observed in the sample No. 5 (Lettuce 5), the highest cadmium concentration, 0.008ppm, was measured in the sample No. 2 (Lettuce 2), and the highest nickel concentration, 0.07ppm, was observed in the samples No. 1 and 4 (Lettuce 1 and Lettuce 4).

Conclusion: The results of this study show that while all the lettuces cultivated in the Savadkooh region contain some amounts of nickel, cadmium, and lead, these amounts are much lower than the limits specified in Iran’s national standard, and therefore these products are perfectly safe to consume. Also, the concentration of each heavy metal in the lettuces was found to be directly correlated with the corresponding concentration in the soil in which they were grown, indicating that the heavy metal content of the products increases with the increasing heavy metal content of the soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of N:K Ratios in Soils on Growth, Nutrient Availability and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Southern Nigeria

A. O. Bakare

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 34-43
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2021/v5i230105

This study was undertaken to determine the influence of N:K ratios applied to soils and the availability of N, K on yield of maize in two distinct ecological zones of Edo state of Nigeria. The sites used were Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria (RRIN) Iyanomo (Forest) and the Teaching and Research Farm of Ambrose Alli University, Emaudo, Ekpoma (Derived Savanna). The soils of the two experimental sites were analyzed for both physical and chemical properties before the commencement of the experiments. The experiments were carried out as pot experiments in the screen house and field experiments. Each of the experiments had ten treatments (adjusted ratios) that were fitted into randomized complete block design and replicated three times. Maize was used as the test crop. Results from the screen house revealed that N/K ratio 4:1  had the  highest dry matter yield for both locations, (RRIN; 2.60 g/pot and Emaudo;  2.75 g/pot) but these values were not significantly different (P < 0.05) from what were obtained from N/K ratio 3:1 and 2:1, respectively. The N:K ratio in soil had influence on the availability of N and K. Under field conditions, N/K ratio 4:1 had the highest grain yield for both locations (RRIN; 3.46 ton/ha and Emaudo; 3.33 ton/ha), and the highest cob field weight (RRIN; 9.92 ton/ha and Emaudo; 9.33 ton/ha), hence its recommendation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different N Management on Improving N Efficiency in Rice- tarom Variety

M. Valinejad, S. Vaseghi

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 44-49
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2021/v5i230106

The chlorophyll meter (SPAD) and leaf colour chart (LCC) are simple, portable diagnostic tools that can measure the crop N status in situ in rice fields to determine the timing of N top dressingAn experiment was carried out in Rice Research Institute in Mazandaran, in 2019. A test material has been evaluated in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Tarom variety were grown under eight treatments at plant density of 25*25 cm. Eight treatments included a zero-N control, o splits, chlorophyll meter 35, 37, 40, LCC 4 and 5. Result showed that Both LCC and SPAD can be used to improve N management for rice. The optimal SPAD threshold for determining the timing of N-application was 35. LCC treatments indicated that N-management based on LCC shade 4 helped avoid over application of N. Critical value of LCC 4 was more beneficial in enhancing the growth and agronomic, physiologic and internal efficiency.  It is suggested that when N-management technology such as real time N-management (SPAD and LCC) were used, would avoid to over application of N fertilizer by rice farmers. The objective of this study is to determine critical threshold  SPAD and LCC value of  Tarom variety of rice(Oyiza Sativa L).