Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Physicochemical Properties and Heavy Metal Load in Soils of Ebocha Gas Flaring Site in Rivers State, Nigeria

O. I. Achieche, O. O. Njoku, C. M. Duru, M. O. Nwachukwu

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2020/v4i230087

The negative impact of gas flaring on the environment cannot be overemphasised. This study assessed the effect of gas flaring on the physicochemical properties and heavy metal contents in soils of Ebocha gas flaring site in Rivers State. It involved the assessment of various distances from gas flaring point to 200 meters away (50 m, 100 m, 150 m, and 200 m) which represents the extent of gas flared pollution on soils to determine the physicochemical properties and heavy metal load. The gas flaring significantly decreased soil organic carbon and calcium content when compared with non-gas flaring polluted soils. Soil acidity increased, soil exchangeable ions decreased. N, P and K were altered in gas flared soils when compared to the controls. There were detrimental effects on soils physicochemical properties. Heavy metals observed were Cd (Cadmium), Ni (Nickel), As (Arsenic), Cr (Chromium), while Pb (Lead) was not detected. The concentration of heavy metals in gas flared soils decreases down soil depth from 0-15 cm to 45-60 cm respectively. The gas flaring extremely caused the acidic nature of gas flared soils. Coefficient of variation (CV) in percentage shows significant increase in acidic nature of the gas flared soils when compared with the control soils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Different Level of Vermicompost on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat at Vertisols of L/Machew District

Weldegebriel Gebrehiwot, Tewolde Berhe, Tsadik Tadele, Kinfe Tekulu, Geberesemaeti Kahsu, Solomon Mebrahtom, Samrawit Mebrahtu, Goitom Aregawi, Gidena Tasew, Aklil Gebremedhin

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 21-27
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2020/v4i230089

A field experiment was carried out to evaluate different rates of vermicompost, and inorganic NPS(Nitrogen-Phosphate Fertilizer With Sulphur) fertilizers for wheat production in 2015-2017 main cropping seasons at L/machew district of the Tigray Regional State. There were five systematically combined rates of vermicompost and one rate of NPS treatments during the study. The experimental design was randomized complete block with three replications. Surface soil samples were collected before planting to analyze selected soil properties. The textural class of the soil was clay. The pH of the soil was rated under moderately acidic. Available P was rated under medium in most of the experimental sites while total N was low in all experimental sites.  The treatments significantly affected crop phenology, yield and yield components of wheat. Thus tallest plant height was found from treatments that received 100kg/ha NPS, followed by 8.75t/ha vermicompost which resulted in (73.25cm) while the shortest plant (62.73cm) was obtained from control plots, respectively. Highest mean wheat grain yield (2642.8kg/ha) was obtained in response to 100kg NPS from inorganic fertilizer application followed by the second highest dose of vermicompost (7t/ha) with grain yield of 2620 kg/ha.  At the wheat plants grown in plot received vermicompost compost at 7t/ha of vermicompost increased the grain yield by 67.78% over the control. Though highest grain yield was obtained from highest dose of vermicompost the partial budget analysis shows that the highest marginal rate of return (456) was obtained from 3.5t/ha VC ha-1 plus 100kg/ha urea at the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Organic Manure Source and Weeding Frequencies on Growth Parameters of Jute Mallow (Corchorus olitorious)

M. M. Olorukooba, R. Suleiman, O. Olukotun, R. Mohammed, E. Apene, J. Essien, C. A. Danbaki, S. O. Olafemi

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 28-36
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2020/v4i230090

Field trials were carried out during 2018 and during 2019 dry season periods at Federal College of Forestry and Mechanization Afaka Kaduna, located between latitude 10° 35”N and longitude 007° 21”E at altitude 644 m above sea level, to determine the effects of organic manure source and weeding frequencies on growth parameters of jute mallow (Corchorus olitorious). The experimental treatments consists of ten combinations of poultry manure + weed free, cow dung + weed free, goat dropping + weed free, poultry manure + weeding at 2 WAT, cow dung + weeding at 2 WAT, goat dropping + weeding at 2 WAT, poultry manure + weeding at 4 WAT, cow dung + weeding at 4 WAT, goat dropping + weeding at 4 WAT and  no organic manure application + no weeding which were laid out in a randomize complete block design (RCBD) and replicated 3 times The growth parameters observed  and measured were crop vigour score, plant height, shoot diameter, number of leaves and number of  primary branches. Result of the study showed that at harvest (8 WAT) all the treatments significantly affected the vigour of jute mallow crop and gave comparable score than the least observed with no nutrient + no weeding as control. The result revealed that plant growth at harvest exhibited significantly taller plant with application of poultry manure + weeding at 2 WAT. In conclusion the result obtained from the study showed that poultry manure at 4 tons /ha + weeding at 4 WAT resulted in taller plant height, wider shoot diameter, increased number of leaves, number of branches than all other treatment due to lower weed infestation, it is therefore recommended as the best treatment combination to obtained the best growth rate of jute mallow.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Organic Manures on the Growth and Yield of Water melon (Citrullus Ianatus)

U. U. Emeghara, O. Olukotun, O. E. Olagunju, R. Akanni- John, B. O. Oni, L. Ganiyu, U. F. Yahaya, S. O. Olafemi, S. Omodona, F. M. Rasheed

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 37-43
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2020/v4i230091

Field experimental trials were carried out at Federal College of Forestry Mechanization, Afaka. Kaduna located between latitude 100 35”N and longitude 07°21”E at altitude 644m above sea level to compare the effect of different application of organic manures on growth and yield of water melon (Citrullus Ianatus). Two trials were conducted between the early onset of rain in April and post monsoon in October 2011 and the mean of the two trials were taken. The treatments were poultry manure, mixture of poultry manure plus goat/ sheep manure, goat/ sheep manure and control(no manure). The treatments were replicated four times in randomized complete block design. Data were collected on growth parameters such as plant vines length, Number of branches per plant, number of leaves and yield parameters like fruits weight, fruits diameter and number of fruits. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and the mean separated using Least Significant Difference. The results showed that there were significant differences (P<0.05) in plant vine length. The plots treated with poultry droppings had the highest value of plant vine length of 8.20, 137.90 and 216.30 cm at 2, 4 and 6 weeks after planting. Poultry droppings also gave the highest values for the weight of fruit (10.72 Kg) and diameter of fruit (53.25 mm). The best treatment is poultry manure which has the highest yield of 34.25% at 2.5 tonnes per hectare. Poultry manure showed positive effect on all the growth and yield parameters of water melon (Citrullus lanatus) measured. The use of poultry manure is therefore recommended for farmers in the study area in order to be able to obtain good yield of water melon.

Open Access Review Article

Effect of Losing Nitrogen Fertilizers on Living Organism and Ecosystem, and Prevention Approaches of their Harmful Effect

Rahmatullah Hashimi, Mohammad Hanif Hashimi

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 10-20
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2020/v4i230088

The world’s population is drastically increasing; therefore, an enormous amount of nitrogen and other fertilizers are used to produce enough food for their feeding. Furthermore, since the applied nitrogen amount is not completely absorbed by plants, its big proportion is released to the environment in different ways. The released nitrogen amount damages both humans’ health and the environment. Some technical and agronomical techniques help to minimize the loss of this nitrogen. The fertilizer's loss not only affects farmers' economic condition, but their effects are integrated. Nitrogen fertilizers pollute water, soil, air, as well as our foods. Leaching nitrate can cause eutrophication in sea, lakes, and water bodies. This condition poses a big threat to the lives of fish and other aquatic organisms. It also causes various diseases in humans such as blue baby syndrome, carcinoma, and others. For instance, Nitrate-N (NO3-N) leads to the blue baby syndrome, carcinoma, and other diseases in humans. NO3-N leaching stimulates the growth of blue-green algae and creates hypoxic zones in the water. Moreover, cyanobacteria produce toxins that affect the liver`, kidney, brain, skin, and other parts of the human body, as well as cause complicated diseases. Ammonia and nitrogen oxides contribute to acid rains and have adverse effects on ecosystems. Nitrous oxides (N₂O) deplete the ozone layer, a layer that prevents harmful rays from reaching the earth. N₂O contributes extremely to global warming due to its potentiality. Although Nitrogen fertilizers have contributed to produce high yields in the world, their excessive application has created different problems in our environment. To reduce nitrogen leaching, some agronomical, technical, and other practices are required to be used in the large and small farming system.