Open Access Original Research Article

Geochemical, Index, and Strength Appraisals of Granite-derived Residual Soils

C. O. Ikubuwaje, O. O. Oso, I. A. Rotimi

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2020/v4i130082

This research work examined the geochemical, index, and strength properties of lateritic residual soils from granitic parent rock in Akure, southwestern Nigeria. The aim is to underscore the potential use of such soils as engineering fills materials. The geochemical method involved the use of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). The major oxides determined from this analysis were used for the geochemical quantifications of the soils. Analysis of soil index properties involved consistency limits, grain size distribution and specific gravity tests, while the strength analysis involved compaction and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests. Results obtained from the index analysis classified the soil profile into behavioral groups VII and VI. These indicates that the soils are of high to intermediate plasticity and compressibility. The UCS values vary from 272.6 to 377.2 kPa while the shear strength values range from 138.8 to 188.6kPa, indicating good bearing capacity. The geochemical results revealed iron-oxide variations as the major influential constituent within the soil profile. Furthermore, the more lateriterizad zones correspond with the more competent horizons. The residual soils from the study area are found to be suitable materials in engineering construction works as Sanitary landfills and Subgrade materials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Measurement and Estimation of Annual Variability of Water Loss at Njuwa Lake Using Class ‘A’ Pan Evaporation Method

A. A. Sadiq

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 11-21
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2020/v4i130083

Aim: To measure and estimate the annual variability of water loss at Njuwa Lake using Class ‘A’ Pan Evaporation Method.

Place and Duration of Study: Njuwa Lake in Yola South LGA, Adamawa State Nigeria between November, 2019 and May, 2020.

Methodology: Direct measurements of morphometric characteristics of the lake were adopted using simple bathymetric method. Evaporation rates data and other related weather variable for the periods of ten (2007-2016) years were obtained from Upper Benue River Basin Development Authority located near the lake where the volume of water in the lake and the annual water loss were estimated using FAO estimate of water requirement procedures.

Results: The results revealed that Njuwa Lake has morphometric characteristics of 1, 325 m average length, 180m average width, average depth 3.4 m, 238, 500 m2 of  surface area, 1,445 m shoreline length and 0.834 m shoreline development with an estimated water volume of  810, 900 m3 respectively. Similarly, highest Class ‘A’ Pan evaporation rates were found in the year 2011, 2007 and 2008 with the corresponding total annual values of 2688.06 mm, 2403.64 mm and 2389.63 mm having an estimated values of water lost from the lake of 641, 102.310 m3 (79.07%), 573, 268.140 m3(70.7%) and 569, 926.755 m3 (70.29 %) correspondingly. Conversely, the year 2013,2012 and 2014 were found with the lowest measured Pan evaporation rates (1585.00 mm, 1611.54 mm and 1663.27 mm) with an estimated water lost on the lake of about  378, 022.500 m3 (46.6 %), 384, 352.290 m3 (47.4 %) and 396, 689.895 m3 (48.9 %).

Conclusion: The rate of water loss was through evaporation was estimated to be greater than the stored water in the Lake in most of the years under study which led to untimely drying of the lake thereby affecting the irrigation farming in the area. Valuable strategies of water use efficiency and irrigation scheduling for effective utilization of the limited stored water in the lake for sustainable food production should be therefore adopted. The research work, however, need further work to make a comparison between the class ‘A’ Pan method and other empirical models method to revalidate the reliability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Compost Tea Application on Soil Properties, Growth and Yield of Amaranthus (Amaranthus caudatus L) in Wukari, Northern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria

A. T. Gani, C. A. Odey, A. Christopher

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 34-42
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2020/v4i130085

A study was conducted to determine the effects of compost tea application on the soil properties, growth and yield of amaranthus (Amaranthus caudatus L) in Wukari, Northern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria. The experimental variables include compost tea of 10 liters water/1 kg compost, compost tea of 20 liters water/1 kg compost, and compost tea of 30 liters waters/1 kg compost, 120 kgN/ha of urea fertilizer and no treatment. The treatment combinations were done in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), replicated trice on a land area of about 150m2 (0.015 ha) consisting of 15 plots measuring 4 m by 2 m each. The prepared compost tea had the chemical constituent in adequate quantities except for total nitrogen and the micronutrients determined. Compost tea had significant effect on most of the parameters considered. Application of the extract resulted to increase in total nitrogen, organic carbon, exchangeable magnesium and exchangeable sodium. The growth parameters; plant height and stem girth increased significantly with the application of 2.5 t/ha of compost soaked in 10 liters of waters which gave the highest yield of Amaranthus caudatus when weighed. Although the compost tea extract was effective to some extent, fortification with organic additives that will add the missing micronutrient and inorganic additives is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Empirical Survey on Damages Caused by Erosional Depositions on Farmlands along Jimeta-Yola Road, Adamawa State Nigeria

A. A. Sadiq, Maryam Abdullahi, Abubakar Bello

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 43-54
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2020/v4i130086

Aim: To empirically survey the damages caused by erosional deposition on farmlands along Jimeta-Yola road, Adamawa state Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: It was conducted in June-July 2020 rainy season due to the unprecedented depositions on three farmlands (Abattoir, Garage and Yola Bridge) in the area.

Methodology: Data was obtained in three phases which include on-farm interviews and questionnaires, direct measurement of depositions using simple bathymetric method and collection of three representative soil samples from the profiles for determination of some physico-chemical properties.

Results: The result indicated that rice was major crop grown in the area for about 30 years with an average yield ranges from 2000-8000 kg (20-80 bags). The number of farmlands damaged was 11 with total of 22 acres, at Abattoir, 5 farmlands at Garage having a total of 15 acres and 7 farmlands were also damaged with about 10 acres respectively. Fine sandy soil was deposited to an average depth of 55 cm with an estimated volume of 48.96 m3 at Abattoir area, debris and clay loam was deposited to an average of 20 cm at Garage having an estimated of 12.14 m3 and at Yola Bridge farm location about 4.24 m3 volume of loamy soils were also deposited to an average depth of 10 cm. The depositional soils have pH values ranges from 5.23-6.23, organic matter content of 0.43-2.33%, water holding capacity 35-55%  with rapid to moderate permeability.

Conclusion: To combat the damaged imposed by soil erosions on farmlands in the area both preventive and conservative measures should adopted by the government and the farmers with the aim of restoring and sustaining the good soil health that will support food production for growing population.

Open Access Review Article

Problems and Remediation of Some Polluted Soils in Benue State, Nigeria

S. T. Dayok, A. T. Gani

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 22-33
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2020/v4i130084

Exploitation of natural resources is a vital condition of human existence. Population growth leads to competition on the natural resources thus, creating negative impact on the environment leading to the destruction of ecosystems and pollution. The concern here is that human existence is under threat. Benue soils are shallow, underlying clay accumulation with poor internal drainage. This drainage problem often results in problems such as over flooding causing land, water, and air pollution. Crusting is also part of the problems of the soils and may lead to low infiltration and poor seedling germination and emergence. It is hereby suggested that to remedy these problems, land should be used wisely to the benefits of human existence while protecting its value for the use of future generation. Fertilizer and chemicals such as herbicides importation and manufacturing must meet specifications to safeguard the environment. Soil organic matter should be maintained through adequate fertility of the soil and soil survey to avoid failure and to protect the environment. Technology and innovations that fit easily into the existing farming systems should be adopted for easy acceptance by farmers. Importations of machines and implement must meet specifications. Indigenous engineers should be encouraged and supported by the government to design machines that are suitable for the soils and the environment.