Open Access Minireview Article
Until now, there have been laborious researches regarding the presence of heavy metals in environmental factors but their effects have been studied less in the bio-geo-chemical circuits, respectively within the local trophic chains and the regional trophic networks. Naturally, the metals existing in the earth's crust enter the bio-geo-chemical cycles. In the cells of higher organisms, as we know, there is a fragile balance between the amounts of metals needed for catalytic processes and toxic doses to organisms. However, this balance is dependent not only on the concentration and variety of metals in the Earth's crust but also on the microbiological activity of environmental factors, responsible for the transformation of these metals into complex chemical substances that affect more or less the organisms, respectively their enzymatic activity. The vital-necessary, but also the non-vital mineral substances in their mobile forms, which may at one time be toxic to organisms, are significantly pushed out by anthropic activities into trophic chains. They are present in environmental factors such as soil, air, water, reach the body of plants and the body of animals. Plants and animals can bioaccumulate and concentrate in their bodies several chemical elements in the environment, regardless of their origin, which is then easily transferred through food circuits into the human body. Thus, through local trophic chains, respectively through regional trophic networks, contamination of the human body takes place. This requires the need for a measure of most likely high complexity to mitigate the effects with a strong impact on the health status, including that of the human psychic. In severe cases of contamination, behavioral manifestations, especially among the vulnerable population, are proven.
Open Access Original Research Article
Background and Objective: Sulphur and boron are found as most critical nutrient elements for the better growth and yield of mustard crop however no such concrete information for their uses in field production of this crop is yet to be reported. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of agronomic biofortification of sulphur and boron nutrients on the growth and yield of mustard crop.
Study Design: The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates.
Place of Study: The experiment was carried out in the Crop Botany Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
Methodology: Three doses of sulphur (S) viz. 0, 20 and 40 kg ha-1 and three doses of boron (B) viz. 0, 0.5 and 1.0 kg ha-1 and their possible combinations were used as basal doses. Field data were collected from periodic destructive samplings on the plant height, number of leaves and branches per plant, total dry matter accumulation and finally yield components and yield.
Results: Sulphur and boron fertilizations significantly influence the plant height, production of branches and leaves per plant, dry matter accumulation and yield attributes and yield of mustard crop. The mustard crop fertilized with 40 kg S ha-1 in combination with 1 B kg ha-1 produced taller plant, higher number of branches and leaves in each plant and higher amount of dry matter per plant while these plant traits were found as minimum when the growing the mustard crops in control plots i.e. the plants received neither sulphur nor boron. Application of sulphur @ 40 kg ha-1 along with boron @ 1 kg ha-1 produced the highest seed yield (2.73 t ha-1) whereas the lowest seed yield (1.08 t ha-1) was found where no sulphur and boron were applied.
Conclusion: The result conclude that combine application of sulphur and boron @ 40 and 1 kg per hectare, respectively was found to be most effective dose in enhancing growth and yield of mustard crop.
Open Access Original Research Article
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of seasonal flooding on the properties of floodplain soils of Wukari Area of Taraba state. The treatments consisted of five different locations of Gidan-Idi, Gindin-Dorowa, Tsokundi, Rafin-Kada and Nwuko and three different soil sample depths of 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm, and 40-60 cm laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD) and replicated three times. Soil samples were collected from each plot in 2016 and 2017. All soil samples were analyzed for physical and chemical properties. The results obtained were subjected to analysis of variance and means separated using F-LSD test at p≤.05. The results of the soil properties analysis showed that some of the determined parameters were significantly different at the different sample locations at p≤.05. The soils of Wukari Floodplains are mostly clay loam in texture having very slightly acid to neutral soil reaction, moderate organic matter, low total N, moderate available P, low exchangeable bases and CEC. The flood plain soils were moderate in soil fertility, a confirmation of the general characteristic of Savanna soils. The soils were not deficient in micronutrients. Seasonal flooding had significant (positive) influence on some physical and chemical properties of the flood plains most particularly at Rafin-Kada.
Open Access Original Research Article
The genetic level differences between Brassica species can have potential impact on their performance under salt stress conditions together with Phosphorus and Potassium applications. In this study we hypothesized that certain level of salt stress mitigation can be done with applications of Phosphorus and Potassium solutions. Germinated seeds of Brassica juncea (var. Khanpur raya) and B. napus (Faisal canola), raised to 10 days seedlings stage and transferred to continuously aerated nutrient solution For salt stress, applied NaCl @60 mM in the nutrient solution’ also applied phosphorus as potassium di hydrogen phosphate (PDP) @ 0 and 10 mM in triplicates. Khanpur raya and Faisal canola responded significantly (p< 0.01) to the application of PDP for growth and ions relations under salt stress and non-stress. Under stress conditions, shoot fresh mass (SFM) of Khanpur raya increased 10 percent with 10 mM of applied PDP than its control whereas SFM of Faisal canola increased 8 percent than its control. Root fresh mass (RFM) of Khanpur raya increased 8 percent with 10 mM of applied PDP than its control whereas RFM of Faisal canola increase 10 percent than its control. Dry mass of Khanpur raya increased 11 percent with 10 mM of applied PDP than its control whereas SDM of Faisal canola increased 6 percent than its control. Root dry mass (RDM) of Khanpur raya increased 18 percent with 10 Mm of applied PDP than its control whereas RDM of Faisal canola increased 19 percent than its control. In Khanpur raya Na+ /K+ ratio decreased 21 percent than the control, whereas this ratio decreased 24 percent in Faisal canola than its control. Under salt stress, physiological P-use in shoot and root of Khanpur raya increased 11 and 8 percent respectively than that of Faisal canola.
Open Access Review Article
Traditional agriculture has been generally considered everywhere as a joint effort of man and cattle. In recent past, a great deal of importance has been given to individual animal product and formulation. Among the liquid formulations, the most widely used is Panchagavya. This traditional organic input has been mentioned in Ayurveda, prepared by using five components derived from cow viz. milk, curd, ghee, urine, dung and all these five products are individually called 'Gavya' and collectively termed as 'Panchagavya' . Besides these five components, enriched panchagavya also contains some additional components like coconut water, sugarcane juice or jaggery, banana and toddy. Coconut water is a cheaper substitute for kinetin which helps in increasing the chlorophyll content of rice. It plays a crucial role in each and every component of crop management like integrated nutrient management , integrated pest management disease management. Panchagavya also has a great impact on human and animal health. It holds an important place in Ayurvedic medicine due to its disease curing properties. Ancient Indian scriptures such as Bhel Sanhita, Kashyap Sanhita, Charak Sanhita, Sushrut Sanhita hail about the glory of the mixture of cow’s five essences- the panchagavya. It is believed that consumption of panchagavya results in removal of physical as well as mental disorders and acts as an enhancer of physical strength and life span.