Open Access Original Research Article

Demonstration of Conservation Farming Practices in Improving Sorghum Yield at Tanqua-Abergelle Wereda, Ethiopia

Guesh Assefa, Meresa Weleslasie

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2020/v3i330072

Conservation agriculture (CA) technologies involve minimum soil disturbance, permanent soil cover through crop residues or cover crops, and crop rotations for achieving higher productivity. Today tillage is seen destroying activity that leads to decline in organic matter and destruction of soil structure. Hence, the objective of this study was then to improve soil moisture and structure through minimizing soil disturbance which can be explained by the obtained yield response of sorghum. The research was undertaken at twenty one (21) interested farmers’ piece of land (10 m x 10 m) at Tanqua Abergelle Wereda in specific sites called Sheka Tekli and Agbe tabias’, it was successful only at thirteen (13) farmer’s land at Sheka Tekli. The conservation farming practices such as basin was prepared two weeks earlier from its sowing date. Grain yield and farmers perception on each practice of conservation agriculture were collected and subjected to simple descriptive statistics. Accordingly, the grain yields obtained from tied-ridger and basin technologies were 1.6 t/ha and 1.31 t/ha, respectively. However, conventional tillage revealed the lowest grain yield of sorghum. Farmers have shown great interest and promise to adopt tie ridger than basin due to lower yield. Therefore technology promotions and popularization on the study and similar agro ecological areas should be carried out in collaboration with stakeholders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Conservation Farming Practices in Improving Sorghum Yield at Tanqua Abergelle Wereda, Northern Ethiopia

Meresa Weleslasie, Guesh Assefa

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 8-15
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2020/v3i330073

Traditional farming, particularly tillage has long been used by farmers to loosen the soil, make a seed bed and control weed. However, it has been discovered that tillage operations, overtime, cause a decline in soil fertility and overall productivity resulting from deterioration of soil physical, chemical and biological properties. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of minimizing soil disturbance on sorghum yield. The research was conducted at Tanqua Abergelle Wereda in specific localization called Gereb Giba testing site. Six treatments replicated three times according to Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and plot size of 3.75 m x 4 m were used. The conservation farming practices used were basin and tie-ridger, one month earlier from its sowing date. Moreover, sorghum seeds were sown on nursery in the month of June, and was latter transplanted to field experiments. Agronomic data were collected for three consecutive years (2014 to 2016) and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). The obtained result indicates that there was significant difference (0.05%) between treatments especially with comparison to conventional tillage. The highest grain yield (1.41 t/ha) was obtained in the treatment (Ripper + tie-ridger + transplanting), followed by basin + transplanting, Ripper + tie-ridger + inter-cropping, Ripper + tie-ridger and conventional tillage with 1.33 t/ha, 1.21 t/ha, 1.16 t/ha and 0.95 t/ha respectively and the lowest was obtained from basin 0.72 t/ha, due to sandy soils, i.e siltation affects at initial growth stage. Therefore, using tie-ridger and basin with transplanting are more important in low receiving and eratic type of rainfall, due to moisture stress prone areas and to increase grain yield. Though, practicing such kinds should be taken as compulsory issue particularly in dry land areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Inorganic Fertilizer on Soil Properties, Growth and Yield of Maize in Makurdi, Southern Guinea Savanna Zone of Nigeria

A. Ali, M. Usman, S. O. Ojeniyi

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 16-24
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2020/v3i330074

Field experiment was conducted with the objective to determine the effect of inorganic fertilizer on soil properties, growth and yield of maize at the Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Southern Guinea Savanna Zone of Nigeria, during 2017 and 2018 cropping seasons. The experimental treatments consisted of 0, 75, 150 and 300 kg ha-1 of NPK fertilizer laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated thrice. Soil samples were collected from a plough layer of 0-15 cm before and after the experiment for each cropping season according to the treatments and were analyzed for particle size distribution (PSD), soil pH, organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus, exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Maize plant (growth and yield) data collected were subjected to analysis of variance after which significant means were separated using least significant difference (LSD) at P < 0.05. From the results, the effects of fertilizer treatments on soil properties investigated were significant. Application of fertilizer increased soil organic matter (SOM), TN and CEC in both cropping seasons. However, the SOM was low in all plots with no application of fertilizer. Exchangeable bases, base saturation and CEC reduced in 2017 in no fertilizer treatments but remarkably increased in 2018 due to application of 75, 150 and 300 kg ha-1. The 300 kgha-1 NPK fertilizer applications produced higher growth and yields of maize plant than remaining treatments. Similarly, soil properties (soil pH, SOM, TN and CEC) were also improved with application higher levels of mineral fertilizers for agricultural production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Land Management Technology for Continuous Jhum Cultivation in Hilly Area of Bangladesh

Md. Zonayet, Alok Kumar Paul

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 26-32
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2020/v3i330075

The experiments were conducted in three hill district of Bangladesh i.e. Bandarban, Khagrachari and Rangamati under the Agro Ecological Zone (AEZ) 29 (Northern and Eastern Hills Tract) during March 2018 to November 2019 to study the fertilizers packages, NPK briquette and residual effect of fertilizers for continuous jhum cultivation. In this experiments, jhum crops were used as the test crop. The experiment was designed on Randomized Completely Block Design. The treatments consider as normal fertilizers packages (N60P20K30 S12 kg/ha), NPK briquette (N50P20K30 S12 kg/ha) and residual effect of fertilizers instead of farmers practice. By different fertilizers packages the results showed that the highest yield of Jhum rice was 3.81 tha-1 at Khagrachari, Maize (0.436 tha-1) at Rangamati, Sweet gourd (1.679 tha-1) at Bandarban, Chili (0.348 tha-1) at Khagrachari, Sesame (0.361 tha-1) at Bandarban and Marpha (Cucumis sativus) (0.742 tha-1) at Bandarban over farmers’ practice. Instead of normal fertilizer application, fertilizer NPK briquette was used with the highest yield of rice was 4.18 t ha-1 at Khagrachari, Maize (0.674 tha-1) at Bandarban, Sweet gourd (1.06 tha-1) at Bandarban, Chili (0.514 tha-1) at Khagrachari, Sesame (0.753 tha-1) at Khagrachari and Marpha (0.316 tha-1) at Khagrachari. After cultivation of jhum crops another short duration leguminous crops could be cultivated without fertilizers management. The highest yield of cowpea (1.043 tha-1) was obtained at Bandarban site. Yard long bean and Bean yield was also obtained 1.02 and 1.5 tha-1 respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Slope Length on the Soil and Nutrients Loss from the Upland (Hill) of Bangladesh on Jhum Crops

Md. Zonayet, Alok Kumar Paul

Asian Soil Research Journal, Page 33-41
DOI: 10.9734/asrj/2020/v3i330076

The experiments were conducted in the hill district of Bangladesh (CHTs) i.e Bandarban, under the AEZ 29 (Northern and Eastern Hills Tract) during March 2016 to November 2017 to study effect of slope length on the soil and nutrients loss from the upland (hill) of Bangladesh. The experiments were laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatments for the experiment were: T1 30m slope length, T2 20m slope length, T310m slope length and T45m slope length. The highest soil loss of 50.0 t/ha/yr was recorded in treatment L1 having the slope length of 30 m and the plot size 150 m2 (30 m × 5 m). The lowest soil erosion was noted (4.75 t/ha/yr) for L4 treatment with the 5m slope length having area coverage area of 25 m2. The amount of soil loss in L2 (20 m length) and L3 treatments (10 m length) were 42.7 and 21.9 t/ha/yr, respectively. Nutrient depletion increased with the increasing lengths of the hilly land along the slope. The highest depletion of OM and plant nutrients were recorded under the maximum slope length of 30 m (L1) being followed by the losses observed in L2 (20 m), L3 (10 m) and L4 (5 m) plots respectively. The maximum losses of OM, total N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S were 2542, 93.1, 0.295, 2.73, 35.2, 20.6, and 1.34 kg/ha/yr, respectively for L1 (30 m) plot. Slope length created a very positive impact on yield of Jhum rice. The maximum yield of Jhum rice was produced under 30m slope length (2.25 t/ha). Slope length had considerable influence on the performance of Jhum crops like sweet gourd, marpha, maize, white gourd and cowpea.