Asian Soil Research Journal <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Soil Research Journal (ISSN: 2582-3973)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/ASRJ/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of soil research. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Asian Soil Research Journal en-US Asian Soil Research Journal 2582-3973 Origin and Dynamics of Termite Mound Soils in Southern India <p><strong>Aims: </strong>In Southern India, termite above-ground nests can have the shape of cathedral (CAT) or lenticular (LENT) mounds. Although CATare built by the fungus-growing species <em>Odontotermes obesus</em>, the origin and evolution of LENT remain unknown. Therefore, the aim of to study was to estimate the origin and dynamics of LENT from their specific physical and chemical properties.</p> <p><strong>Study Site: </strong>This study was carried out in the Bandipur Tiger reserve (dry deciduous forest), Karnataka, Southern India.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:&nbsp; </strong>All the soil samples were collected in a Fluvisol in the Mule Hole experimental watershed.Only large size mounds between 1.5 - 1.8m high were considered in this study. Soil samples were collected from the outer wall of CATnest and from the soil surface layer (0-5 cm deep) and surrounding soil. Particle-size distribution and dispersion were obtained by process of sedimentation. All the statistical analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA) were calculated using R studio and R version 3.2.1.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Using elemental physical and chemical properties, this study showed a gradient of soil properties from the soil sampled between 50-100 cm depth to CAT, LENT and the surrounding topsoil (CTRL, Fluvisol), suggesting that: (i) CAT can be considered patches in the landscapes with specific physical and chemical properties in comparison with CTRL and LENT; (ii) LENT mounds can result from the progressive modification of CTRL (autogenic origin of LENT) and their degradation leads to a progressive recovery of CTRL properties or (iii) they originate from the colonization of abandoned CAT by other termite species (exogenic origin of LENT).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study confirms the complexity of CAT and LENT fates and the need for long-term datasets to determine the origin and evolution of termite mounds.</p> A. K. Harit P. Jouquet ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-03 2021-12-03 19 23 10.9734/asrj/2021/v5i430115 Determination of the Hydrodynamic Parameters of Two Types of Soil in the Senegal River Delta. Simulation of Hydro-saline Transfers: Application to the Wind Deflation Phenomenon <p>In the Senegal River delta, the presence of a shallow salt water table associated with a strong evaporative demand sometimes leads to an upwelling of salts that crystallize on the surface. This phenomenon can be observed in the vicinity of the Diawling Basin, where a powdery structure sensitive to wind deflation and a massive structure with a fractionation into platelets that cannot be transported by the wind are noted.</p> <p>To understand the hydrodynamic characteristics of these soils, we used numerical simulation of water and solute transfers. The hydrodynamic parameters were determined in the laboratory using Wind's method on undisturbed samples. The experimental retention h() and hydraulic conductivity K(h) curves were fitted using the Van Genuchten model. The simulations show that the soil with a powdery structure has hydrodynamic characteristics that favour the ascent of salts from the water table to the surface. For the soil with a massive structure, the hydrodynamic conditions impose a deposition of salts in the subsurface.</p> Fary Diome Landing Biaye ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-13 2021-12-13 24 34 10.9734/asrj/2021/v5i430116 Role of Air Flow on Changing Soil Properties and Plant Nutrition in Egyptian Alluvial Soil <p>Study the effect of air flow on changing some soil properties and plant nutrition is highly important to increase crop quality and productivity. The pot experiment was carried out focusing on Agric faba bean C.V. Giza 2 in Egyptian alluvial soil (clay) during 2017-18 seasons. Two soil samples with three replicates were taken. The results revealed that hygroscopic water (HW), saturation percentage (SP) and real density (RD) have not affected by air flow, while organic matter (OM), hydraulic conductivity (HC) and bulk density (BD) have remarkable increase with air flow. The available macro and micronutrients concentrations in soil and plant are also discussed where different results have been obtained depending upon type of nutrient.&nbsp; The total count of bacteria (TCM) is found to be affected with air flow than without aeration techniques. The findings of this study reveal that aeration or air flow promotes healthy levels of soil gases and plays a critical role in plant growth.</p> Ayman M. El-Ghamry Amira M. El-Emshaty Ahmed Mosa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 35 46 10.9734/asrj/2021/v5i430117 Evaluation of Different Extractants for Boron Estimation in Soils of Odisha and Andhra Pradesh <p>The present study was conducted to compare the four different extractants widely used in boron (B) determination in soils and to screen the most suitable extractant for acidic (Alfisols) and alkaline (Vertisols) soils of Odisha and Andhra Pradesh. A total of 200 surface soil samples were collected across two sites (100 from each site) representing different pH ranges. Hot-water-soluble boron (HWS-B) extraction procedure being the most widely used B determination procedure was kept as a benchmark in order to compare the B extracting efficiency by the extractants viz., 0.01 <em>M</em> Calcium Chloride (CaCl<sub>2</sub>), 1 <em>N</em> Ammonium acetate (NH<sub>4</sub>OAc) pH-7.0 and 0.01 <em>M</em> Barium Chloride. The mean values of hot water extractable B for acidic soils were 0.49 (mean between 0.18 and 1.50 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>), CaCl<sub>2 </sub>– 0.42 (mean between 0.14 and 1.52 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>), BaCl<sub>2 </sub>– 0.45 (mean between 0.10 and 1.68 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) and NH<sub>4</sub>OAc – 0.60 (mean between 0.17 and 2.43 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>). The mean values of hot water extractable B for alkaline soils were 1.87 (mean between 0.71 and 4.79 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>), CaCl<sub>2 </sub>– 1.57 (mean between 0.45 and 5.43 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>), BaCl<sub>2 </sub>– 1.37 (mean between 0.52 and 4.15 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) and NH<sub>4</sub>OAc – 1.92 (mean between 0.85 and 8.33 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) in acidic and alkaline soils respectively. The coefficient of variation for extractable B varied from 53.0 to 66.6 and 42.7 to 55.7 in acidic and alkaline soils respectively. The variation in B extracting efficiency in both the types of soils was found in the order: Hot water &gt; Hot CaCl<sub>2 </sub>&gt; BaCl<sub>2 </sub>&gt; NH<sub>4</sub>OAc<sub>. </sub>&nbsp;Authors conclude that amongst all the compared extractants, 0.01 <em>M</em> CaCl<sub>2&nbsp;&nbsp; </sub>extraction may be an adequate procedure for B determination in both the acidic as well as alkaline soils.</p> P. L. Choudhari Sreenath Dixit Srija Priyadarsini Chetna Nimje C. Vijayaranganatha P. V. Satish ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 47 53 10.9734/asrj/2021/v5i430118 Phytoextraction of Lead: Its Feasibility, Constraints and Concerns <p><strong>Aims: </strong>With lead being one of the most common soil contaminants and phytoextraction has been reported as a prospective method for remediation of lead-contaminated soil, this review aims to examine the feasibility of lead phytoextraction as well as its constraints and concerns.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; This is a literature review.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Peer-reviewed papers were sourced from scholarly databases. The papers included in the review were mainly those about phytoextraction of lead, particularly with the shoot, soil and root concentrations of lead mentioned as well as the bioconcentration and translocation factors stated. Besides, papers discussing the limits, for instance, the duration of lead phytoextraction, and concerns of the approach were also included.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This review found only 11 plants have been reported to accumulate lead in shoots at nominal threshold of near or above 1,000 mg Pb/kg dry weight and in certain cases, soil amendment was required to achieve this. Only two of the plants had bioconcentration factor &gt; 1 and another two had translocation factor &gt; 1. None of the plants fulfilled all three criteria of a successful hyperaccumulator, indicating the constraints and a lack of feasibility of lead phytoextraction. Besides, lead phytoextraction has been predicted to require significant amount of time, hence increasing the risk of exposure to lead.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This review highlights that lead phytoextraction may not be feasible for the remediation of lead-contaminated soil. It recommends phytostabilization as a more viable alternative to immobilize lead in rhizosphere and reduce lead exposure.</p> Kuok Ho Daniel Tang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 1 9 10.9734/asrj/2021/v5i430113 Bio-availability and Bio-accessibility of Lead and Zinc in Contaminated Soil from Cwymystwyth Lead Mine Site <p>Cwmystwyth Lead Mine was an abundant mine site with pugh’s and kingside water drainages shows contaminated water in the research area with no much scientific evidence to ascertain the level of the pollution. Hence this research was designed to study level of lead and zinc in contaminated soil in which the bio-availability and bio-accessibility were measured. Sixteen (16) soil samples were taken at random using soil auger and a hand trowel. The samples were dried using an oven set at a constant temperature of 400<sup>o</sup>C for 72 hours. Wire mesh (250 microns) was used to sift the samples. The Unified (BARGE) method was used. The mimics mixtures of saliva, gastric, duodenal, and bile fluids. Three-stage mimic processes were performed, in the mouth, the stomach and intestinal cavities. All mimic digestive fluids were placed in the rotator water bath for 1hr at 37<sup>o</sup>C. The bioaccessibility of the soil Samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) method. The results were obtained using XRF and ICP methods. The percentage concentration of lead in the topsoil was 0.64% and in the bottom soil was 1.47%, with a total mean concentration of 1.06% in combined top and bottom soil. Zinc concentrations in the top and bottom soils were 0.22 and 0.45%, respectively, with a computed total mean of 0.34%. The findings revealed a highly significant difference between lead and zinc in both the top and bottom soil samples (LSD = P0.05). The average concentrations of lead and zinc extracted in both the stomach and intestinal stages were 15.98% and 1.23%, respectively</p> Y. Abdullahi A. S. Aska C. Roberts M. S. Abdu J. Gambo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-02 2021-12-02 10 18 10.9734/asrj/2021/v5i430114