Main Article Content
This study investigated the impacts of spent engine oil on the physicochemical properties of soil, soil's microbial population and growth of Capsicum annuum. It covered assessment of different levels of contamination (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80%) in soil; which represents the degree of oil spillage concentration on the growth performance of C. annuum investigated. Percentage germination, seedling height, number of leaves and number of branches decreased as the concentrations of the spent engine oil in soil samples increased and affected soil physicochemical properties. The screening experiment conducted showed that poultry manure improved the physicochemical properties of sandy loam soils contaminated engine oil. The effects of poultry manure as an organic amendment was assessed using pepper (C. annuum) as test crop. All amendment made significant increase in soil organic carbon and calcium content over the polluted soils. Soil acidity increased, soil exchangeable ions decreased. N, P and K were altered in the polluted soils as compared to the controls. There were increased bacterial counts (2.21 – 2.85) and a decrease in fungi population (0.48 - 0.59) in the spent engine oil-contaminated soils compared with the control. The oil reduced germination percentage, depressed growth, reduction in leaf number and plant height of the C. annuum. Therefore the spent engine oil clearly had detrimental effects on soil's physicochemical and biological properties. The oil contributed largely to the extreme acidic nature of the polluted soils. However, maximum increase in plant height, germination percentage, number of leaves and branches were recorded with amendment of the polluted soils with poultry manure. Results show the considerable potential of remediation protocols with poultry manure as a remediating agent for oil spill remediation in the soil samples.
Wang JJ, Jiq CR, Wong CK, Wong PK. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons created in lubricating oils. Water, Air and Soil pollution. 2000;120: 381-396.
Achuba FI, Peretiemo-Clarke BO. Effect of spent engine oil on soil catalase and dehydrogenase activities. International Agrophysics. 2008;22:1-4.
Dominguez-Rosado RE, Pichtel D. Phytoremediation of land contaminated with used motor oil; Enhanced Microbial Activities from Laboratory and Growth Chamber Studies. Environmental Engineering Science. 2004;2:157-168.
Odjegba VJ, Sadiq AO. Effect of spent engine oil on the growth parameters, chlorophyll and protein levels of Amaranthus hybridus L. The Envionmentalist. 2002;22:23-28.
Osubor CC, Anoliefo GO. Inhibitory effect of spent lubricating oil on the growth and respiratory function of Arachis hypogaea L. Benin Science Dig. 2003;1: 73–79.
Anoliefo GO, Vwioko DE. Tolerance of Chromolaena odorata L. (K and R.) grown in soil contaminated with spent lubricating oil. Journal of Tropical Bioscience. 2001;1: 20-24.
Nwoko CO, Okeke PN, Agwu OO, Akpan, IE. Performance of Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a soil contaminated with spent engine oil. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008;6(16):1922-1925.
Adenipekun CO. Bioremediation of engine oil polluted soil by pleurotus tuber-regium Singer, a Nigerian whole rot fungus. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008;7 (I):055-058.
Vwioko DE, Fashemi SD. Growth response of Ricinus communis L. (castor oil) in spent lubricating oil polluted soil. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management. 2005;9(2):73-79.
Ying Y, Sheng T, Xue B. Impact of heavy metals pollution on soil organic matter accumulation. Journal of Environmental Ecology. 2007;18(7):1479-1483.
Vwioko DE, Anoliefo GO, Fashemi SD. Metal concentration in plant tissues of Ricinus communis L. (Castor oil) grown in soil contaminated with spent lubricating oil. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management. 2006;10: 127-134.
Yadav SK. Heavy metal toxicity in plants: An overview on the role of glutathione and phytochelatins in heavy metal stress tolerance of plants. South African Journal of Botany. 2010;76:167-179.
Nwadinigwe AO, Onwumere OH. Effects of petroleum spills on the germination and growth of Glycine max L. Nigerian Journal of Botany. 2003;16:76-80.
Onwurah IN, Ogugua VN, Onyike NB, Ochonogor AE, Otitoju OF. Crude oil spills in the environment, effects and some innovative clean-up biotechnologies. International Journal of Environmental Research. 2007;1(4):307-320.
Ayoola SO, Akaeze CO. Genotoxic evaluation toxicity of spent engine oil on Clarias gariepinus. Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology. 2012;6:133-141.
Fedak D. The story of why engine oil became engine sludge. Engine Builder; 2001.
Available:http://www.enginebuildermag.com/item/2289/the story of why engine oil became engine sludge.aspx
Christopher M. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban soil: A Florida risk assessment perspective. International Journal of Soil, Sediment and Water. 2008;1(2):1-14.
Obini U, Okafor CO, Afiukwa JN. Determination of levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil contaminated with spent motor engine oil in Abakaliki auto-mechanic village. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management. 2013;17(2):169-175.
Kirk JL, Klironomos JN, Lee H, Trevors JT. The effects of perennial ryegrass and alfalfa on microbial abundance and diversity in petroleum contaminated soil. Environmental Pollution. 2005;133(3):455-465.
Amadi A, Abbey SD, Nma A. Chronic effects of oil spill on soil properties and microflora of a rain forest ecosystem in Nigeria. Water, Air and Soil Pollution. 2000;86(1-4):1-11.
Baker KH, Herson D. Microbiology and Biodegradation. In: Bioremediation. Baker, K.H. and Herson, D. (eds). McGraw Hill Inc., New York. 2004;9-60.
Ijah UJ, Safiyanu H, Abioye OP. Comparative study of Biodegradation of Crude oil in soil amended with Chicken droppings and NPK fertilizer. Science World Journal. 2008;3(2):63-67.
Onuh MO, Madukwe DK, Ohia GU. Effects of poultry manure and cow dung on the physical and chemical properties of crude oil polluted soil. Sci. World J. 2008;3(2):45 – 50.
Lu YC, Watkins KB, Teasdale JR, Abdul-Baki AA. Cover crops in sustainable food production. Food Reviews International. 2000;16:121–157.
Snapp SS, Swinton SM, Labarta R, Mutch D, Black JR, Leep R, Nyiraneza J, O’Neil K. Evaluating cover crops for benefits, costs and performance within cropping system niches. Agronomy Journal. 2005;97:322–332.
Widmer TL, Mitkowski NA, Abawi GS. Soil organic matter and the management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Journal of Nematology. 2002;24:289–295.
Oka Y. Mechanisms of nematode suppression by organic amendments – a review. Appl. Soil Ecol. 2009;44:101–115.
Forge TA, Hogue EJ, Neilsen G, Neilsen D. Organic mulches alter nematode communities, root growth and fluxes of phosphorus in the root zone of apple. Applied. Soil Ecology. 2008;39:15–22.
Essien JP, Ebong GA, Asuquo JE, Olajire AA. Hydrocarbons contamination and microbial degradation in mangrove sediments of the Niger Delta region (Nigeria). Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management. 2012;12(1): 109-111.
Abu GO, Dike OP. A study of natural attenuation processes involved in a microcosm model of crude oil-impacted wetland sediment in Niger Delta. Bioresource Technology. 2008;99:4761-4767
Igwe CE, Azorji, Nwachukwu MO. Effects of NPK Fertiliser (15-15-15) on the Growth Performance of Three Arable Crops Grown on Degraded Kaolin Mined Soil in Abia State, Southeast Nigeria Asian Soil Research Journal. 2019;2(3):1-8.
Nelson DW, Sommer LE. Total Carbon, organic and organic matter in method of soil analysis. Soil Science. 1982;5:127-186.
Grossman RB, Ranches TG. Bulk density and linear extensibility in methods of soil analysis. Soil Science. 2002;5:201-228.
Handershot WH, Lelande MD. Soil reaction and exchangeable acidity in soil sampling and method of analysis. Soil Science. 1993;5:141-145.
Kayode J, Olowoyo O, Oyedeji AA. The effects of used engine oil pollution on the growth and early seedling performance of Vigna uniguiculata and Zea mays L. Research Journal of Soil Biology. 2009;1(1):15-19.
Anoliefo GO, Okoloko GO. Comparative toxicity of Forcados blend crude oil and its water-soluble fraction on seedlings of Cucumeropsis manni Naudin. Nigerian Journal of Applied Science. 2000;18:39-49.
Kayode J, Oyedeji AA. Early growth response of maize (Zea mays L.) in spent lubricating oil-polluted soil. Environtropica Journal. 2012;8(1-10):132-138.
Liao C, Xu W, Lu G, Liang X, Guo C, Yang C, Dang Z. Accumulation of hydrocarbons by maize (Zea mays L.) in remediation of soils contaminated with crude oil. International Journal of Phytoremediation. 2015;17(7):693-700.
Bamidele J, Igiri A. Growth of seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum L.) in soil contaminated with crude petroleum oil. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. 2011;15(2): 303-306.
Ezeala DO. The Sensitivity of Pistia stratiotes (A freshwater plant) to crude oil pollution. 1st edition, University of Port-Harcourt Press, Portharcourt, Nigeria. 1987;194-196.
Osuji LC, Adesiyan SO. The Isiokpo oil-pipeline leakage: Total organic carbon/organic matter contents of affected soils. Chemistry and Biodiversity. 2005; 1079-1085.
Thoma GJ, Wolf DC, Ziegler S. Using plants to remediate petroleum-contaminated soil-project. Continuation Annual Report; 2002.
Available:http://www.rtdf.org.pdf. (Accessed: 08/11/2019).
Adams G, Duncan HJ. Influence of diesel fuel on seed germination. Environmental Pollution. 2002;120:363-370.
Kim J, Kang S, Min K, Cho K, Lee I. Rhizosphere microbial activity during phytoremediation of diesel-contaminated soil. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. 2006; 41:2503-2516.