Main Article Content
Aims: Direct methods of measuring saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), either in situ or in the laboratory, are time consuming and very expensive. Several Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) are available for estimating Ks, with each having its own limitations. In this study, the performances of four popular PTFs were evaluated on different soil classes in the semi deciduous zone of Ghana. The PTFs considered herein were Puckett et al. (1985), Campbell and Shiozawa (1994), Dane and Puckett (1994), and Ferrer-Julià et al. (2004). In addition, five local data derived PTFs were used to study the possibility of using local datasets to validate PTF accuracy.
Materials and Methods: A total of 450 undisturbed soil cores were collected from the 0 – 15 cm depth from three benchmark soils, namely, Stagni-Dystric Gleysol (SDG), Plinthi Ferric Acrisol (PFA) and Plinthic Acrisol (PA). The Ks of samples were measured by the falling-head permeameter method in the laboratory. Sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, organic matter content, and exchangeable calcium and sodium were measured and used as input parameters for the newly derived PTFs. Accuracy and reliability of the predictions were evaluated by the root mean square error (RMSE), coefficient of correlation (r), index of agreement (d), and the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) between the measured and predicted values from both tested and newly derived PTFs. The relative improvement (RI) of the newly derived PTFs from this study over the existing ones were also evaluated.
Results: The newly derived PTFs in this study had higher prediction accuracy with r, d, RMSE and NSE ranging from 0.80 – 0.99, 0.79 – 0.94, 0.14 – 1.74 and 0.84 – 0.98, respectively, compared with 0.32 – 0.45, 0.27 – 0.50, 4.00 – 4.90 and 0.41 – 0.47 for the tested PTFs. The relative improvement of the newly derived over the tested PTFs ranged from 56.50 – 95.71% in the SDG, 70.73 – 96.89% in the PFA, and 65.37 – 95.81% in the PA. Generally, RI was observed to be highest for Model 1 in the SDG, and Model 4 in both PFA and PA, and lowest for Model 5 in all three soils. It was observed that the inclusion of exchangeable calcium and sodium as predictors increased the predictability of the newly derived PTFs.
Tuffour HO. Physically based modelling of water infiltration with soil particle phase. Ph.D. Dissertation, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana; 2015.
Yao RJ, Yang JS, Wu DH, Li FR, Gao P, Wang XP. Evaluation of pedotransfer functions for estimating saturated hydraulic conductivity in coastal salt-affected mud
farmland. J. Soils Sed. 2015;15:902-916.
Zhao C, Shao M, Jia X, Nasir M, Zhang C. Using pedotransfer functions to estimate soil hydraulic conductivity in the Loess Plateau of China. Catena. 2016;143:1-6.
Cornelis WM, Ronsyn J, Van Meirvenne M, Hartmann R. Evaluation of pedotransfer functions for predicting the soil moisture retention curve. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 2001; 65:638-648.
Aimrun W, Amin MSM, Eltaib SM. Effective porosity of paddy soils as an
estimation of its saturated hydraulic conductivity. Geoderma 2004;121:197-203.
Langhans C, Govers G, Diels J, Clymans W, Van Den Putte A. Dependence of effective hydraulic conductivity on rainfall intensity: loamy agricultural soils. Hydrol. Proc. 2010;24(16):2257-2268.
Saxton KE, Rawls WJ. Soil water characteristic estimates by texture and organic matter for hydrologic solutions. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 2006;70:1569-1578.
Schaap MG, Leij FJ, van Genuchten MTh. Rosetta: A computer program for estimating soil hydraulic parameters with hierarchical pedotransfer functions. J. Hydrol. 2001;251(3-4):163-176.
Minasny B, Mcbratney AB. Evaluation and development of hydraulic conductivity pedotransfer functions for Australian soil. Aust. J. Soil Res. 2000;38:905- 926.
Schaap MG. Rosetta Version 1.0. US Salinity Laboratory, USDA, ARS: Riverside, CA.; 1999.
Carsel RF, Parrish RS. Developing joint probability distributions of soil water retention characteristics. Water Res. Res. 1988;20:682-690.
Wösten JHM, Finke PA, Jansen MJW. Comparison of class and continuous pedotransfer functions to generate soil hydraulic characteristics. Geoderma. 1995; 66:227-237.
Leij FJ, Alves WJ, van Genuchten MTh, Williams JR. The UNSODA unsaturated soil hydraulic database, version 1.0, EPA Report EPA/600/R-96/095, EPA National Risk Management Laboratory, G-72, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 1996.
Miller EE, Miller RD. Physical theory for capillary flow phenomena. J. App. Phy. 1956;27:324-264.
Obiero JPO. Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity for surface runoff modelling. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Environmental and Biosystems Engineering, University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2013.
Hodnett MG, Tomasella J. Marked differences between van Genuchten soil water-retention parameters for temperate and tropical soils: A new water-retention pedo-transfer functions developed for tropical soils. Geoderma. 2002;108:155-180.
Tomasella J, Hodnett MG, Rossato L. Pedotransfer functions for the estimation of soil water retention in Brazilian soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 2000;64:327-338.
Rawls WJ, Brakensiek DL. Prediction of soil water properties for hydrologic modeling. In: Jones, EB, Ward TJ. (Eds.) Watershed Management in the eighties. Proc. Irrigation and Drainage Division, ASCE Denver, CO. 1985;293-299.
Vereecken H, Maes J, Feyen J, Darius P. Estimating the soil moisture retention characteristic from texture, bulk density, and carbon content. Soil Sci. 1989;148: 389-403.
Rawls WJ, Ahuja LR, Brakensiek DL. Estimating soil hydraulic properties from soils data. In: van Genuchten MTh et al. (Eds.). Indirect methods for estimating the hydraulic properties of unsaturated soils. Proceedings Int. Workshop, Riverside, CA Oct. 11-13. 1989. University of California, Riverside, CA. 1992;329-340.
Williams RD, Ahuja LR, Naney JW. Comparison of methods to estimate soil water characteristics from limited texture, bulk density, and limited data. Soil Sci. 1992;153:172-184.
Culley JLB. Density and compressibility. In: Carter MR. (Ed.). Soil sampling and methods of analysis. Canadian Society of Soil Science, Lewis Publishers, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl. 1993;529-539.
van Genuchten MTh. A closed-form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1980;44(5):892-898.
Brakensiek DL, Rawls WJ, Stephenson GR. Modifying SCS hydrologic soil groups and curve numbers for rangeland soils. ASAE paper no. PNR-84203, St. Joseph, MI; 1984.
Bonsu M, Laryea KB. Scaling the saturated hydraulic conductivity of an Alfisol. J. Soil Sci. 1989;40:731-742.
Tuffour HO, Bonsu M, Abubakari A, Bashagaluke JB, Opoku MA, Oppong JC. Scaling of infiltration rate using the similar media theory and dimensional analysis. Eura. J. Soil Sci. 2018;7(4):308-317.
Puckett WE, Dane JH, Hajek BF. Physical and mineralogical data to determine soil hydraulic properties. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1985; 49: 831-836.
Campbell GS, Shiozawa S. Prediction of hydraulic properties of soils using particle size distribution and bulk density data. In: van Genuchten MTh et al. (Eds.). Proceedings of the International Workshop on Indirect Methods for Estimating the Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Soils. University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA., 1994; 317-328.
Dane JH, Puckett W. Field soil hydraulic properties based on physical and mineralogical information. In: van Genuchten MTh et al. (Eds.). Proceedings of the International Workshop on Indirect Methods for Estimating the Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Soils, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA, 1994; 389-403.
Ferrer-Julià M, Estrela Monreal T, Sánchez Del Corral Jiménez A, García Meléndez E. Constructing a saturated hydraulic conductivity map of Spain using pedotransfer functions and spatial prediction. Geoderma 2004; 123: 275-277.
Agyare WA, Park WA, Vlek PLG. Artificial neural network estimation of saturated hydraulic conductivity. Vadose Zone J. 2007; 6: 423-431.
Pringle MJ, Lark RM. Scale- and location-dependent correlations of soil strength and the yield of wheat. Soil Till. Res. 2007; 95: 47-60.
Pringle MJ, Romano N, Minasny B, Chirico GB, Lark RM. Spatial evaluation of pedotransfer functions using wavelet analysis. J. Hydrol. 2007; 333: 182-198.
Tomasella J, Pachepsky YA, Crestana S, Rawls WJ. Comparison of Two Techniques to Develop Pedotransfer Functions for Water Retention. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 2003; 67: 1085-1092.
Wösten JHM, Lilly A, Nemes A Le Bas C. Development and use of a database of hydraulic properties of European soils. Geoderma 1999; 90: 169-185.
Rasoulzadeh A. Estimating Hydraulic Conductivity Using Pedotransfer Functions, Hydraulic Conductivity-Issues, Determination and Applications. In: Elango L (Ed.). ISBN: 978-953-307-288-3, InTech.
Bloemen GW. Calculation of hydraulic conductivities of soils from texture and organic matter content. Z. Pflanzenernaehr. Bodenk 1980; 143 (5): 581-615.
Jabloun M, Sahli A. Development and comparative analysis of pedotransfer functions for predicting soil water characteristic content for Tunisian soil. Proceedings of the 7th Edition of TJASSST. 2006;170-178.
Wang Y, Shao M, Liu Z. Pedotransfer functions for predicting soil hydraulic properties of the Chinese loess plateau. Soil Sci. 2012;177:424-432.
Wagner B, Tarnawski VR, Hennings V, Müller U, Wessolek G, Plagge R. Evaluation of pedo-transfer functions for unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity using an independent data set. Geoderma. 2001;102:275-297.
Ghorbani Dashtaki Sh, Homaee M, Khodaverdiloo H. Derivation and validation of pedotransfer functions for estimating soil water retention curve using a variety of soil data. Soil Use Man. 2010;26:68-74.
Khodaverdiloo H, Homaee M, van Genuchten MTh, Ghorbani Dashtaki S. Deriving and validating pedotransfer functions for some calcareous soils. J. Hydrol. 2011;399:93-99.
Jarvis NJ, Zavattaro L, Rajkai K, Reynolds WD, Olsen PA, Mcgechan M, Mecke M, Mohanty B, Leeds-Harrison PB, Jacques D. Indirect estimation of near-saturated hydraulic conductivity from readily available soil information. Geoderma. 2002;108:1-17.
Li Y, Chen D, White RE, Zhu A, Zhang J. Estimating soil hydraulic properties of Fengqiu County soils in the North China Plain using pedotransfer functions. Geoderma. 2007;138:261-271.
Haghverdi A, Özturk HS, Ghosi S, Tunçay T. Estimating saturated hydraulic conductivity using different well-known pedotransfer functions. In: Newton I, Einstein A. (Eds.). Instructions for Short Papers for the Agro Environ Conference, Wageningen; 2012.
Tamari S, Wösten JHM, Ruiz-Suarez JC. Testing an artificial neural network for predicting soil hydraulic conductivity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1996;60:172-1741.
Willmott CJ. On the validation of models. Phys. Geogr. 1981;2:184-194.
Candemir F, Gϋlser C. Influencing factors and prediction of hydraulic conductivity in fine textured alkaline soils. Arid Land Res. Man. 2012;26(1):15-31.
Nemes A, Schaap MG, Wösten JHM. Functional evaluation of pedotransfer functions derived from different scales of data collection. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 2003; 67:1093-1102.